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Road crossings

Facility selection tool

The online Pedestrian Facility Selection Tool is designed to help practitioners select the most appropriate type of pedestrian crossing based on walkability, safety and economic outcomes.

The tool assesses the viability of different types of pedestrian crossing facilities according to the physical and operational parameters of a site and its safety performance.

It can be used to assess both mid-block and intersection locations.

It can assess raised platforms, kerb extensions, median refuges, zebra crossings, signals, grade separation or combinations of these facilities.

TMR endorsed guidance

Other useful resources

Unsignalised crossings

Unsignalised crossing types include:

  • pedestrian refuges
  • footpath/kerb extensions
  • zebra crossings
  • zebra crossings on slip lanes
  • wombat crossings (raised zebra crossings)
  • children’s crossings
  • raised priority crossings
  • continuous footpath treatments (side roads)
  • grade separation.

TMR endorsed guidance

Other useful resources

Signalised crossings

Single-stage pedestrian crossings on all legs is the recommended default provision at urban signalised intersections.

Pedestrian delay times should be minimised as far as possible. Queensland research has found pedestrian compliance is highest where the delay time is between 60 and 90 seconds. There is an almost 50% decrease in compliance for delay times exceeding this.

Signals incorporating pedestrian detection technology provide reduced delay to motorists, reduced cycle time and improved LOS for all.

TMR endorsed guidance

  • TRUM Volume 1 Part 6, Intersections, interchanges and crossings, Table 8.2.1-1(2) – Benefits of treatments: traffic controlled (time separation) facilities (Department of Transport and Main Roads, 2019)
  • TRUM Volume 1 Part 9 – Traffic Operations (Department of Transport and Main Roads, 2020). Sections:
    • 6.5.3-4 Pedestrian protection
    • 6.5.3-5 Two-aspect signal controls of pedestrian crossings on slip lanes
    • 6.5.3-6 Pedestrian detectors at intersections and mid-block signalised pedestrian crossings (Smart crossings)
    • 6.5.3-7 Pedestrian countdown timers
  • TMR Road Safety Policy, Appendix A: Safety Intervention and Improvement Guidelines (Interim) (Department of Transport and Main Roads, 2015)
  • Queensland Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices Part 10: Pedestrian control and protection (Department of Transport and Main Roads, 2017)
  • Queensland Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices Part 14: Traffic signals (Department of Transport and Main Roads, 2017)
  • AS/NZS1158 Part 4: Lighting of pedestrian crossings
  • AS2353 Pedestrian Push-Button Assemblies
  • AS1742 Manual of uniform traffic control devices Part 10: Pedestrian control and protection
  • AS1742 Manual of uniform traffic control devices Part 14: Traffic signals

Other useful resources

Operational treatments at signalised crossings

Operational treatments to reduce pedestrian delays at signalised crossings include:

  • exclusive pedestrian phasing and scramble crossings
  • dwell on red/dwell on green
  • extended clearance and extended walk
  • reduced cycle lengths and fixed demand
  • isolated traffic controls
  • double walk phase and late vehicle start
  • pedestrian parallel walk
  • setting a lower maximum cycle time
  • green wave.

TMR endorsed guidance

Other useful resources

Physical treatments at signalised crossings

Physical treatments to road infrastructure include:

  • kerb extensions and ramps
  • grade separation
  • slip lane removal or signalisation
  • smart crossings
  • mid-block pedestrian crossings
  • pedestrian countdown timers
  • raised pedestrian crossings (wombat crossings).

TMR endorsed guidance

Other useful resources

Slip lanes

Unsignalised left turn slip lanes should generally be avoided at new intersections unless signalised with pedestrian protection.

For existing intersections with slip lanes in urban areas, road authorities may have pedestrian or combined pedestrian/vehicle volume warrants to install pedestrian crossings (zebra crossings) on slip lanes.

TMR endorsed guidance

  • TMR Road Safety Policy, Appendix A: Safety Intervention and Improvement Guidelines (Interim) (Department of Transport and Main Roads, 2015b)
  • AS1742 Manual of uniform traffic control devices Part 10: Pedestrian control and protection, Section 6 Pedestrian crossing (zebra)
  • Pedestrian Safety at Slip Lanes Guideline (in development)

Roundabouts

Design features that improve the level of service and safety for pedestrians at roundabouts include:

  • well-designed crossings
  • smaller radius entry and exit curves
  • narrow traffic lane entry and exit
  • splitter islands
  • prohibition of parking on approaches
  • pram crossings that are designed for people with a disability and/or mobility difficulty
  • street lighting
  • signs and vegetation located so as not to obscure ‘smaller’ pedestrians.

TMR endorsed guidance

Other useful resources

Grade separations

Grade separations include:

  • overpass crossings – a grade separation where a pedestrian and/or cyclist crosses over a road
  • underpass crossings (often referred to as subways) – a grade separation where a pedestrian and/or cyclist path passes under a road via a culvert or structure.

Use where:

  • signals are warranted but at grade crossing is inappropriate e.g. across major roads/motorways
  • there are high volumes of people walking
  • at a split school campus (TMR Policy).

Don't use where:

  • alternative crossing treatments are feasible
  • people are required to walk significant distances (out of their way) to use the facility.

TMR endorsed guidance

Other useful resources

Railway crossings

Pedestrian crossings of suburban rail systems include:

  • grade separated pedestrian crossings
  • pedestrian crossings at vehicular level crossings
  • pedestrian crossings at stations remote from vehicular crossings
  • pedestrian crossings remote from stations or vehicular level crossings.

TMR endorsed guidance

Other useful resources

Last updated
31 August 2021