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Universal access

Universal design

The seven principles of universal design are:

(1) equitable use
(2) flexibility in use
(3) simple and intuitive use
(4) perceptible information
(5) tolerance for error
(6) low physical effort
(7) size and space for approach and use.

TMR endorsed guidance

Grades and surface treatments

While a footpath necessarily follows the natural topography of the area, in the best possible circumstances a continuous accessible path of travel should:

  • have a gradient of no steeper than 1 in 20
  • have a cross fall of no steeper than 1 in 40
  • have kerb cuts with appropriate kerb ramps
  • incorporate appropriate Tactile Ground Surface Indicators where necessary to ensure adequate safety and orientation at street crossings
  • have a pedestrian zone with a minimum clear width of 1.8m at the narrowest point and a minimum clear height of 2 metres with nothing encroaching into that envelope
  • be as smooth as possible without raised or cracked paving or tree root damage
  • have a slip resistant surface during dry and wet conditions.

Useful resources

Kerb ramps

Ramps must be oriented in the direction of travel, not to the centre of the intersection. Absolute maximum slope is 1 in 8 (1 in 10 or flatter preferred). Provide TGSIs for people with vision impairments (see note G on KRG1 for when TGSI’s are not required).

TMR endorsed guidance

  • TMR Standard drawings:
    • SD1446 - Kerb ramp - Ramped kerb crossing
    • SD1447 - Median and island crossing - Ramped and cut-through treatment for pedestrian facilities
    • KRG1 - Kerb ramp - Guidelines for the installation of tactile ground surface indicators on ramped kerb crossings
    • KRG2 - Kerb ramp - Application examples for the installation of TGSIs on ramped kerb crossings
  • TMR Technical Training Courses: RPD308 Pedestrian Crossing Facilities and Tactile Ground Surface Indicators Design (one day)
  • Fact Sheet: Motorised Mobility Devices (MMDs) and kerb ramps
  • AS1428.1 – Design for access and mobility - New building work

Other useful resources

Tactile Ground Surface Indicators (TGSIs)

Tactile Ground Surface Indicators (TGSI) are discerned underfoot, by cane tip or by their contrasting colour. There are two types of TGSI:

  • raised dots are hazard or warning indicators which indicate a nearby hazard – a grid of hazard bumps indicates the ground surface will be changing and a ramp, stairs or train platform edge may be imminent
  • parallel raised lines are directional TGSI, which indicate the direction of travel.

TMR endorsed guidance

Other useful resources

  • TMR Technical Training Courses: RPD308 Pedestrian Crossing Facilities and Tactile Ground Surface Indicators Design (one day)
  • Road Safety Audit Tool for Pedestrians who are Vision Impaired (Burtt, 2014)

Audio tactile facilities

Audio tactiles are mechanical or electronic devices connected to the pedestrian ‘call button’ box on crossing poles that pulse (which can be detected by someone’s hand) and emit a ticking or beeping sound.

Audio tactiles are designed to synchronise with the slow clicking phase (when the red man is illuminated) and fast clicking phase (when the green man is illuminated) of traffic signals.

A ticking audio tactile device should be louder than ambient noise.

Push buttons for pedestrian activated signals and audio tactiles should be located within easy reach of the kerb ramp.

TMR endorsed guidance

  • Queensland Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices Part 10: Pedestrian control and protection (Department of Transport and Main Roads, 2017)
  • Queensland Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices Part 14: Traffic signals (Department of Transport and Main Roads, 2017)
  • AS2353 Pedestrian Push-Button Assemblies
  • AS1742 Manual of uniform traffic control devices Part 10: Pedestrian control and protection
  • AS1742 Manual of uniform traffic control devices Part 14: Traffic signals, Section 5.6 Pedestrian push buttons and Section 6.2 Pavement markings

Other useful resources

Legislation and guidance

  • Legislation regulates organisations and individuals by making it unlawful to discriminate against a person because of protected attributes including age, disability, race and sex.
  • Policy, strategy and planning documents provide guidance on how organisations can meet their legal obligations.

International:

  • The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Federal:

  • Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)
  • Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport (DSAPT)
  • Disability (Access to Premises – Buildings) Standards

Queensland Government:

  • Anti-Discrimination Act 1991
  • Human Rights Act 2019
  • Disability Services Act 2006
  • Transport Operations (Road Use Management) Regulation (TORUM) 1995
Last updated
31 August 2021